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Dueling Recommendations: When to Use Dual Therapy

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To Participate

To participate in this continuing education activity:

  1. Review the activity description and objectives.
  2. View the activity.
  3. Complete the online post-test and activity evaluation.
A product of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Education Center (SIDPEC) 

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NOTE: If you attended the live CE activity titled "Dueling Recommendations: When to Use Dual Therapy" that was held on October 2, 2018 at the SIDP Annual Meeting in San Francisco, California, AND received CE credit (i.e. a pharmacist CE statement with ACPE Universal Activity Number 0221-9999-18-378-L01-P), you are NOT eligible to also receive CE credit for this home-study activity.


This presentation will focus on the highlights and recent developments of combination therapy. Topics addressed will include the use of combination therapy to optimize empiric antibiotic selection for gram-negative coverage. Faculty will briefly touch on definitive combination therapy and some of the highlights as it relates to guideline recommendations and data that is expected within the next year.

This is a featured CE activity on the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Education Center (SIDPEC) website. SIDPEC is the educational hub of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP). The SIDPEC portal provides educational activities on infectious disease pharmacotherapy for clinical pharmacists, health‐systems pharmacists, community pharmacists, and other allied‐health disciplines.

Learning Objectives

The target audience for this activity is pharmacists. At the completion of this activity, the participant will be able to:

  • Summarize combination gram-negative therapy recommendations from the Surviving Sepsis and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP)/ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) guidelines.
  • Illustrate discrepancies between national guideline recommendations and primary literature regarding use of combination therapy for gram-negatives (GNs).
  • Identify practical tools to assist in the antibiotic selection for gram-negative infections (GNs).


Julie Ann Justo, PharmD, MS, BCPS-AQ ID
Assistant Professor, University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy
Infectious Diseases Clinical Pharmacist, Palmetto Health Richland Hospital


Release Date: 10-2-2018
Expiration Date: 10-2-2021


ACPE LogoThis activity is jointly provided by ProCE, Inc. and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. ProCE, Inc. is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. ACPE Universal Activity Number 0221-9999-18-378-H01-P has been assigned to this home-study knowledge-based activity (initial release date 10-2-2018). This activity is approved for 0.75 contact hours (0.075 CEU) in states that recognize ACPE providers. The activity is provided at no cost to participants. Participants must complete the online post-test and activity evaluation to receive pharmacy CE credit. No partial credit will be given. Statements of completion will be issued online at, and proof of completion will be posted in NABP CPE Monitor profiles.


It is the policy of ProCE, Inc. to ensure balance, independence, objectivity and scientific rigor in all of its continuing education activities. Faculty must disclose to participants any significant financial interest or affiliation with companies that manufacture or market products discussed in this activity. Dr. Justo has no relevant commercial or financial relationships to disclose.

Please note: The information and views presented in this activity are those of the faculty through clinical practice and knowledge of the professional literature. Portions of this activity may include the use of drugs and/or devices for unlabeled indications, which should be considered experimental. Participants are advised to consult manufacturer product information and the professional literature, and use professional judgment in applying the presented information in patient-care activities.


This activity is partially supported by an educational grant from BioFire Diagnostics and Accelerate Diagnostics, Inc.

The material presented in this CE activity does not reflect the views of ProCE, LLC or the commercial sponsor. These materials may discuss uses and dosages for therapeutic products, processes, procedures and inferred diagnoses that have not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. A qualified health care professional should be consulted before using any therapeutic product discussed. All readers and continuing education participants should verify all information and data before treating patients or employing any therapies described in this continuing education activity.